What is duty? – A dictionary will let us know it is a moral or legal obligation. Legal obligations we can make unambiguous sense of. One is obligated in the sense that failure to comply will lead to persecution in a clearly defined manner. The obligation of law is not an invisible bond, but a simple statement of consequences – do this, or else…
Moral duty, on the other hand, is a mystery. Indeed, we have done legal duty a disservice, for the law is not in truth meant as a statement of consequences; if it were, what then when there are no observers, no one to enact the promised consequences! The law states, as the moral duty does, that one should. Here the moral duty sets a period while law, perhaps in admittance of should’s obscurity, adds a tangible motivation; a because. You should; if you do not, then… Law made the astute observation that handcuffs are more certain to be binding than should.
Evolution follows a very simple rule: genes live on only if passed on. Clearly then, the organisms that prevail in nature are those who are able to pass on their genes; those that are best able to protect themselves and their offspring. Since all the creatures are the result of such a harsh process, they are adapted to serve themselves – or, rather, their genes. This is interpreted as meaning that we measure the payoff of actions in promoting oneself and one’s position. And, as much is true, we always try to maximize the payoff of something. But, from a simple rule one can get a complex system. Continue reading
Why does there not exist individuals who deeply believes in certain Gods, with a complete mythology around it about creation, traits, morality and so on, that is completely detached from the beliefs of any other person on earth? Religion does not exist without society.
Viewing religion only as the belief in a supernatural being begs the question why all religions say something about why’s and what’s. Christianity is not the belief “God exists and Jesus is his son”, and Islam is much more than “There is only one God, and Muhammed is his prophet”; they are ways of life and ways of thinking; they are law, philosophy and community.
Self – is the answer for all questions.
Maybe The Socratic Turn was too intensive and came back into initial position after running through all the 360 degrees?
Unlike the sociocentric people of Africa and Asia we, westerners, live in individualistic societies, but for some mysterious reason, beyond all the human rights and freedoms, we have almost lost the meaning of the individual. Continue reading
Creative work can be considered as the only obvious trait which makes human and animal different. We seem to know everything about it: early and modern history, common definition, manifestations. But we are still too far away from an understanding of what creation essentially is. Why do we have desire to create? Where do ideas for the creation come from? What is creative and what is not?
We measure everything on the scale of the universe, of God, of nature, and of humanity, and when we find that we are nothing on these scales, we somehow get disappointed. But we have not become less; these scales are not our scales and how could we then measure anything by them? – The only scale is personal, and here nothing is larger than Life.
The downfall of all potential to change is the lack of urgency or necessity – or lack of belief. It must be apparent to the self-aware person that society is flawed. The cheap answer is that it will always be flawed since humans are flawed (errare humanum est), but that was equally true in medieval times – yet we have moved beyond that. The modern crisis is one of apathy, leisure, emptiness and old habits. How do we motivate ourselves against this? It seems such a motivation would be a solution in itself, but easy solutions are always hard to accomplish. What is easy for us? – this is one of many questions we must tackle.