Since the enlightenment, if not before, philosophy has belonged to the abstract and the ideal. Terms, concepts and categories have been defined by abstract properties, and the language used have been in a sense platonic – speaking as if these concepts exist in themselves. In later years, most thinkers have left the cave, and instead of gazing far away into worlds beyond, the focus has changed to the immediate and the internal. Instead of looking to the stars for moral and religious answers, we have admitted ourselves as the source of such ideas, and the study of these concepts is moving more and more into the fields of psychology and biology. However, while the focus has taken a sharp turn the way of speaking has remained much the same; we study concepts in a new way, but still separate concepts along the same old lines. Is it safe to think no information is lost this way? Continue reading
Here is a sequel of the previous publication, Human Cognition 101, dedicated to human cognition and consciousness. We continue the journey through the labyrinth of reason and try to examine when we believe, how we behave and why we object.
Reason’s Lack of Reasons
If reason is our use of logic in verifying facts, forming beliefs and justifying said beliefs and practices, then it is clear what a limited part of consciousness reason is, and how dependent it is on the instinctual.
There are several major religions each with millions of believers in the world, the collection of which the vast majority of humanity belongs to. They play a large role in most individuals view of life, humanity and the universe. And they are all logically incompatible. Continue reading
We publish the parts of a bigger article which is being in elaboration now. As everything else posted at M&M, this text is going to consider several absolutely non-related issues, the only common point of which is human consciousness. Maximus&Magnus
“Gammel vane er vond å vende” 
One always hears about how valuable tradition is, but how detrimental it can be is often forgotten. If something has been thought about – and maybe also taught about! – a particular way for years and even generations, how difficult is it not to think about it differently! Not only must one’s own habit be combated, but a certain way of doing things is often accompanied by a belief that this is how it should be done. And beliefs are not something we easily trade… Continue reading
Can and its equivalents in other languages is one of the first verbs we learn, and one we use every day. One should think then, that we know well and true what the word means, but perhaps exactly because its use is so common and automatic, we rarely reflect upon it. And as a consequence, more is added into the word than can be allowed – and our view of the world is much distorted by our ingrained understanding of can. Continue reading
Philosophy, psychology and the social sciences in general have been seen as a contrast to the ”hard” sciences, the natural sciences, in that they rely only in a very small part on empiricism, and even this small empiricism can be dependent on perception. For this, it is even made a mockery of them: the theories, in particular in philosophy, cannot be tested, and as such their truth may never be known. The mockery is of course made with certain silly theories and thoughts in mind – silly because they are perceived as obviously false! – but this perception is not from the corporeal senses, and herein lies the difference.
The institutionalisation of, and insistence on, some philosophical idea, be that religious or political, is a sure way to corrupt it. It is an unfortunate fact that humans are often dim-witted, ill-educated, and certainly ill-educators. Most rules, and also traditions, stem from some deeper thought and idea, but unfortunately, in the passing of time and generation, the idea has not been conveyed or understood. What remains then are just rules and traditions. Continue reading
The old idealistic way of thinking – of the good in itself, of duty in itself, of absolute virtues – this impersonal and non-human (or perhaps all too human) way of seeing and judging things is slowly eroding. However, this erosion is more subconscious than conscious, for this old way is so ingrained in our societies that we still think that we live in terms of such concepts, even if it is clear we do not in all but words. There is no morality, only what one feels is right – there is no essence of virtue, only what one feels is virtuous. Continue reading